Import dependency

Development of Import dependence up to 2030

Development of Import dependence up to 2030

The graph above presents an overview of import dependency from imports in general, not just the Russian Federation. From the graphs below, we can see the distribution of the main EU gas and oil sources. EU is able to produce around 18 percent of its total oil consumption. Russia accounts for 26% of all oil, consumed in EU. Looking at the graph displaying the origin of gas, imports from Russia account for 29% of total consumption. Even though Europe does have alternatives of import countries, they require LNG terminals and regasification terminals. Due to vast investments required in the field this is option is suitable to all the countries.

EU  27 origin of Natural GasEU-27 Origin of Oil

EU – 27 origin of Natural Gas, 2004                                                              EU – 27 Origin of Oil

Recently, co-operation between Western Europe and Russia has particularly strengthened through the expansion of energy infrastructure. Trade in natural gas is the most susceptible for the inflexible continental energy infrastructure – pipelines. At present Russia is particularly active in trying to implement two new projects for the supply of natural gas over these pipelines: the North European Gas Pipeline (“Nord Stream”) and the South European Gas Pipeline. It is fair to say that the willingness to coordinate security of supply policies among EU member states, or even delegate such policies to the EU level, differs across member states. As we will discuss in later chapters, Russia is seeking for bilateral relationships with individual members. Partly this explains why the support for a common security of supply policy might not be equally strong in all member states. At the same time, the fact that the degree of import dependency is not the same across member states also contributes to the challenge of establishing one common policy among the members.

EU countries grouped by energy import-dependency ratio gas

EU countries grouped by energy import-dependency ratio (gas)

As we can see, reliance on Russian gas is far from uniform across EU member states, possibly weakening the will to forge a common policy. What is more, even if a common stance were beneficial for the EU as a whole, it might not necessarily be for individual members that see benefits in continuing long-established bilateral relationships with Russia. According to different forecasts, in 2030 the EU will import 70 per cent of total consumed energy resources. This means that imports from Russia will increase.