Least import-dependent EU countries

Countries from central-northern-eastern Europe dominate this group. Domestic production of fossil fuels covers a considerable share (more than 50 percent) of gross consumption in all of these countries – with the notable exception of Sweden. Denmark and the United Kingdom also have the ability to produce both oil and gas. In Poland, the Czech Republic and Estonia modest dependence on fossil fuels is explained by larger consumption of coal. Netherlands is able to produce its own gas, and Sweden with Denmark have an exceptionally large share of renewable energy (around 30%) combined with nuclear (35%).

Least import dependant countries

Least import dependent counties – ratio of domestic energy production to total energy consumption

Medium import-dependent EU countries

With the exception of Germany, Slovenia, and Hungary, no country in this group extracts sufficient amount of fossil fuels to account for more than 10 percent of its total consumption. Except for Latvia and Austria, which have no nuclear power plants, all countries rely on nuclear energy to a degree that is close to or way above the EU average (around 14 percent of total consumption), with France (41 percent) and Slovakia (26 percent) relying the most on this source of energy. Latvia and Austria are in the group of medium import-dependent countries due to an unusually high share of renewable (about one quarter) in total energy consumption.

Medium import-dependent countries

Medium import-dependent countries- ratio of domestic energy production to total energy consumption


Most import-dependent EU countries

Not surprisingly, the domestic extraction of fossil fuels contributes close to nothing to total consumption in these countries, with the exception of coal in Greece (27 percent), oil and natural gas in Italy (9½ percent), and coal and gas in Ireland (9 percent). Nuclear energy is used in some of the countries and accounts for around 10% of total consumption.

Most import dependant EU countries

Most import dependant EU countries - ratio of domestic energy production to total energy consumption

Overall we can see a North – South divide of countries. Northern countries are able to rely on renewable energy as well as nuclear energy resources.24 The Eastern European countries like Lithuania are more and more dependent on the imported energy resources, especially now when the contribution of the nuclear energy in the total consumption will decrease dramatically after 2009 when the nuclear reactor will be closed. Dependence on natural gas is likely to increase for Lithuania, The general projection of the European Commission for the European Union is that European dependency on energy imports will increase in the upcoming years.